The current paper aims to discuss the Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. This theory explains the basic steps of the human’s intelligence development (Kail 30-31). Jean Piaget proposed a model, which explained how a kid constructs a world’s mental model. The scientist was sure that all children inherit the basic mental structure at the beginning of their life. After the birth, the intelligent development begins. The organization and reorganization of the cognitive processes is a fundamental part of the mental development. The primary reason for the continuity of this process is the impact of the environment and constant maturation. It is necessary to highlight tat the intellectual growth is also possible due to the specific psychological regulators, such as equilibration, assimilation, and accommodation. These regulators are essential in the interaction between a child and the external world. The new experience is organized with the help of the schemas. In the theory of Piaget, the schema could be interpreted as the behavioral pattern or a set of the world’s representations. Thus, the process of the constant cognitive development happens with the help of the constant adjustment of schemas to the world on the basis of equilibration, assimilation, and accommodation.
Piaget was sure that the children’s cognitive development is inevitably connected with the biological changes. He highlighted four developmental stages, which are “sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage” (Wadsworth 27-28). The sensorimotor stage (until 2 years) guarantees that a child will know about the existence of some things even if they are hidden. The preoperational stage (2 years – 7 years) gives an opportunity for a child to think symbolically. The concrete operational stage (7 years – 11 years) is the development of operational and cognitive forms of thinking. Finally, the formal operational stage (over 11 years) is connected with the analysis of the abstract ideas and use of different types of logic in this analysis.
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Kail, Robert.Children and Their Development. Pearson Publishing.2014.
Wadsworth, Barry.Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive and Affective Development: Foundations of Constructivism. Pearson Publishing.2003.