Global communication opens a serious opportunity for organizations and people, who need to deliver information to or access it from various parts of the planet. Undoubtedly, global communication skills are necessary for an organization or person dealing with a diverse audience. Thus, it is important for an organization or person to identify issues, which could hinder effective communication. Evidently, for effective global communication, it is important to consider language, governance, cultures, and general traditions of each member of the global community.
The current research paper focuses on the issue of global communication. This essay will analyze the impact of various factors, such as global responsibility, global political and economic changes, global media events, and cultural background on international communication challenges. It is important to note that there is a huge amount of communication issues in our changing world. Undoubtedly, the people build the life based on communication practices and their vision of the communicational process. For an effective communication, the global societyhasto understand the main keys and elements of the global communication process. It is crucial to highlight that many societies have experienced a flood of information from various channels originating far beyond local communities or even national borders, transmitted through the expansion of access to mass communications. Obviously, this is a core component of the broader phenomenon of modern globalization. A close look on the data indicates that the late twentieth century showed a decisive shift in the density, scale, and velocity of cultural interactions, which happened across the territorial boundaries of some specific nation-state. These cultural interactions happen based on the global communication practices. However, the society does not know the consequences of such interactions, especially the impact on various geographically-isolated cultures, which seems to be at the periphery of modern communication networks. Therefore, in the current paper, it is essential to examine the impact of various social, political, economic, and cultural factors on the globalization influence and the future of global culture.
Without any doubts, the problems of business, which face new challenges while hiring staff from other countries are also the main theme of the research. It is important to consider the cross-cultural factors in business communication (Karen, 2011). It is the fact that international communications have a positive impact on a perception of the company’s brands, products, and the firm itself, but such communications must follow several principles. As a result, the positive impact could include the firm’s overall corporate reputation as a leader of the industry. As an example, it is appropriate to note the global source Nokia. It had the best overall impact as the sponsor of communication. Thus, the aim of the paper is to define the main issues of the global communication in the sphere of business.
Background and Significance
The important issue is that the future of our culture depends on the communication environment. According to Global Communication as Cultural Ecology, “It now seems more imperative than ever to discuss global tensions, not only in terms of explicitly economic, geopolitical, and military structures, but also equally in the context of cultural communication and information struggles.” A theory of communication as ecology is a process of information and technological innovations, and how it can be connected to the communication between human beings and their environment and among nations. The global community uses the word “ecology” in a broad sense in order to include all symbolic environments, in which different communications take place. For instance, ecology of habitat, ecology of warfare, ecology of ethics and morality, ecology of goods, information and services, and other contexts (Hamid, 2014). Therefore, cultural ecology includes all of these ecologies. Thus, it is extremely important to analyze the global ecology of culture in the aspect of the global communication practices. The next, not less important issue is global politic process in our changing and developing world. Innovations, emerging markets, the process of globalization, new ways of doing successful business are the key elements, which increase the needs for better understanding of the communication processes in order to deal with the changes. It is a known fact that people, companies and organization interact through different ways of communication. Moreover, communication plays a central role in all business processes. According to Global Leadership in a Changing World, “communication should be continuous through every stage of the change process, from visioning to creating events, to re-energizing followers through short – term wins”. Change in the global environment includes such elements as cultural understanding, customs, and language.
Discussion, Implication, and Recommendations
The first and the most important issue of the global communication is the dialectics of international relations and new methods of communication. Obviously, the fact is that the global communication at the turn of the modern epoch has brought about many various effects on the international relations. On the one hand, it is blurring economic, technological, political, and cultural boundaries. Thus, photography, print, film, telephone, broadcasting, satellites, and different computer technologies, which developed independently, are rapidly merging into a global digital stream of ones and zeroes in the telecommunications networks. Needless to say that separate industries that had developed around these technologies are combining to service the qualitatively new multimedia environment through a series of various corporate mergers and alliances. Furthermore, global communication is undermining the traditional national boundaries or even sovereignties of nations. For instance, Direct Broadcast Satellite is violating national borders by providing the broadcast of foreign news, entertainment, advertising and educational programs with impunity. Obviously, the micro-media of global communication use the same methods of contact with their consumers and send their messages through videocassette and audio recorders, computer discs, fax machines, and networks, including the World Wide Web (Francoise, 2012). Therefore, culturally, the new patterns of such kind of global communication are creating a qualitatively new capitalistic global pop culture of commodity fetishism.
It is important to highlight that advertising and the entertaining industry support these messages, making them more powerful, especially in the case of a significant interaction with a potential consumer. Therefore, it is possible to state that there exists a serious global communication issue, connected with the situation of postmodern and mass culture. Undoubtedly, it is extremely hard to define the ways to solve this issue in one research because various philosophers and sociologists are trying to solve this problem without significant result. It happens due to the poor ethical principles of various companies and organizations, who are the leaders of the global market. They try to use all the advantages of global communications in order to earn more money, to maximize their profit. Obviously, such an attitude towards the client is unethical, but it is not important for the owners of the company, who live in the world of capitalistic dream. Unfortunately, these companies use all their resources in order to buy the most influential channels of global communications. For instance, Internet was the platform for free communication ten years ago, and now it is a huge trading market, with billions of advertisings and paid websites. The idea of free communication transformed into an idea of earning profit. Thus, talented professionals, programmers, and web-designers think not about the spiritual aspect of a new project, but about the profit, which it could give. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most important issues of global communication because the future of the relations between the U.S., Europe, Asia, Africa, and other continents depends on the principles of this communication. It is essential to give possibilities for people to think about their sense of life in the aspect of various cultures, but not about the profit, which they could earn from trading with others.
It is important to mention that the question of personal and social responsibility in the global communication is also a significant issue (Edward, 2012). Evidently, global communication is empowering the strength of forgotten political groups and voices in the international community. Thus, its channels have become an arena for contestation of a new interpretation of various political, economic, and cultural boundaries. It means that the global communication, particularly in its active or interactive forms, has created new moral spaces for exploring the ideas of new global communities. As a result, it is challenging the traditional top-down political, economic, and cultural systems. For example, in Iran, it facilitated the downfall of a dictatorship in 1978-1979 through the usage of cheap transistor audiocassette recorders. The senders used international telephony to spread the messages from all parts of the planet. In Saudi Arabia, the government banned BBC political program, but the volunteers send thousands of videotapes the day after its showing on television in London. The other example happened in China, where the serious democracy movement in Tiananmen Square made successful attempt to spread its message around the world via the fax machines despite severe media censorship. In the Soviet Union, patriotic computer networkers who were sympathetic to Yeltsin and opposed the Moscow coup of 1991 transmitted his messages everywhere throughout the planet despite severe censorship of the broadcasting and press. Undoubtedly, these are only a few examples. Nevertheless, they demonstrate that accelerating technological advances in networking and telecommunications and their worldwide usage are profoundly changing the rules of global communication and international relations. Undoubtedly, it creates an issue of personal and social responsibility for creating various messages, which could achieve any person in the world. The unconscious usage of these messages could impose a new cultural hegemony of some ideology through the “soft power” of the global communication. Globalizing the local and localizing the global are the twin forces blurring traditional national boundaries. It is essential to highlight that the personal responsibility for messages could be even more important than the official messages of some governments. It happens because the global communication possibilities changed the principles of foreign relations through diplomatic channels due to the communication resources available to various non-state actors. Undoubtedly, the emergence of a global society in the form of over some thirty thousand non-governmental organizations, as well as intergovernmental organizations, transnational corporation, and transnational media corporations, has added to the complexity of global communication and international relations. It is extremely hard for the global society to control telecommunications, which is contributing to changes in the trade relations, economic infrastructures, competitiveness, as well as external and internal politics of states. Furthermore, it also affects national security, terrorism, civil war, the emergence of modern weapons systems, intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination. Evidently, the Persian Gulf War provided a picture of what future wars might look like or what they might not look like in the mind of the audience.
Taking everything into account, it is possible to conclude that global communication is redefining the power in modern world politics in ways that various traditional theories of international relations in aspect of communication issues have not yet seriously considered. Generally, it is bringing about serious changes in major areas of soft and hard power. Evidently, hard power refers to material forces such as economic and military advantage, while soft power usually suggests symbolic forces such as cultural, ideological, or moral appeals. In the modern world, major changes take place in both hard and soft power calculations and conceptions. Thus, global television communication networks such as BBC, CNN, and Star TV have added image of politics or public diplomacy to the traditional arsenals of various power politics and secret diplomacy. Furthermore, global communication networks, which are working through NGOs and different interactive technologies such as the World Wide Web are creating pressure groups in the global civil society, such as Greenpeace or Amnesty International. Undoubtedly, these groups serve as new actors in international relations, while it is hard to understand, who influences their work. Although no grand theoretical or empirical generalizations on the dynamics of soft and hard power in connection with changes in the global communication practices are yet possible, trends indicate that this problem is assuming increasing importance.
Therefore, it is crucial to make an opposition to all those, who are trying to use the global communication possibilities in order to support revolution, war, and terror. Moreover, it is important to control some communicational channels, and to prevent citizens from receiving negative information. It does not mean the closing of the free networking, but the governmental control of ethically negative messages.
The data yielded by this study provides convincing evidence that cultural background is an important issue of the global communication. Obviously, when people from two different countries try to find some contact while participating in communication through Internet, they need to follow some basic ethical rules of the international communication. However, it is hard to find these rules due to the absence of some serious and adopted literature. Actually, it happens because the capitalistic society uses the individual as the source of profit. It means that the publishing companies do not want to pay for authors, who are working on the non-profit literature. Furthermore, the owners of the companies understand that any anti-capitalistic movement is dangerous for them. Therefore, various huge companies try to make and informational noise in order to hide necessary works in the billions of senseless publications. An example of it is the absence of new serious spiritual figures or potential classical writers. Publishing companies try to sell the huge amount of fashionable literature with the advantages of global communication system, and people are getting addicted to easy reading with every year. Obviously, many new authors follow this route and publish some primitive novels while the modern society needs extremely serious and detailed researches in the sphere of ethics of international communication. Evidently, without some principles, the global communication leads to the misunderstandings between various nations, internet conflicts, and some kind of degradation of global cultural level (Pranee, 2009). Thus, the issue of the global communication lies in the sphere of personal relation of an individual towards other people, who participate in the communication.
The problem of excessive involvement in communication seems to be the other important issue of the global communication. Evidently, this issue has connection with the understanding of cultural ecology (Hamid, 2014). Obviously, many people face the negative impact of possibilities given by the global communication. Thus, they become addictive to various chatting platforms, social media resources, or other channels of communication. Unfortunately, government has no power and possibilities to control the private life of the citizens, and a huge amount of Internet users lose their time in senseless discussions. There are few books, devoted to this thematic, some number of psychological researches and almost any governmental programs, which could prevent the issue. Researches show that people have more chances to avoid excessive involvement in communication if someone cares about them and invites to various entertaining offline events. Thus, it is possible to provide such events for people. It could be the part of the specific department of communication, which works with the problems in this sphere. Actually, the absence of such governmental programs is the next issue of the global communication. For instance, it is essential for all kids to pass the course of the Internet ethics in school. This course could be the part of the global education in cross-cultural relations and global communication practices.
It is crucial to note that the issue in global communication, which is close to the problem of excessive involvement in communication, is the problem of depreciation of communication. Various writers and social researcher regularly speak about this problem in the context of the technical progress, when a fast email is a substitute for the thoughtful letter. However, even without the criticism of progress, it is possible to observe the decrease of the communicational culture. The artificial level of language is quite low in comparison with letters from the 19th or even first half of the 20th century. People are always in a hurry; they do not think about the culture of communication; they just need to achieve their aim fast. Obviously, such situation seems to be tragic because with the degradation of communication, the degradation of mind also happens.
A close look at the data indicates that a business has many issues connected with the global communication and the process of globalization. They all sound similar to the political and cultural problems, but the economic specific makes them hard to define in the terms of organization management.
The primary problems in business communication often arise when participants from one culture are absolutely unable to understand culturally determined peculiarities and differences in traditions, communication practices, and thought processing. Researches show that at the most fundamental level, problems could occur when one or more of the participants of business process have an ethnocentric view of how to make business. It is important to highlight that ethnocentrism is the belief that someone’s cultural group is in some aspect superior to others. Actually, it is easy to say that ethnocentrism could only affect other companies, who really have problems with bad relations to other cultures, and so unlikely seems to be a major factor in someone’s own business communication. However, difficulties due to a misunderstanding of some elements in cross-cultural communication could affect even enlightened people. Obviously, ethnocentrism is deceptive precisely because people from different cultures perceive their own behavior as logical and normal since that behavior works for them. Undoubtedly, people tend to accept the common values of the culture around them as primary and absolute values. Thus, since each culture has its own set of economic, politic, and social values, which are often quite divergent from values held in other cultures, the understanding of concept of foolish and wise, proper and improper, and even right and wrong become blurred. It means that in international business, communicational issues arise regarding what is proper by various culture’s values, view of the world, and life standards.
Therefore, since no one individual is likely to recognize any form of ethnocentrism, international business practitioners should be especially careful in conducting serious business communication across cultures. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to try to rise above positive culturally imbued ways of viewing our world. Evidently, to do this, one needs to understand how the personal perception of a given message changes in the mind of a receiver depending on the culturally determined worldview. It means that an individual can improve his ability to convey informational messages and conduct business with people in a wide range of cultures by assessing in advance the roles, which various variables play in business communication. Fortunately, it is also possible to extrapolate the sense of almost all of these variables on the non-economic sphere of the global communication.
It is essential to highlight that the use of different languages is among the most often cited barriers in cross-cultural business communication. It is difficult to underestimate the importance of linguistic differences, which play a big role in international business communication. Taking this reality into account, business consultants usually counsel clients to take the necessary steps in order to enlist the services of a good translator. Researches show that language failures between cultures fall into three categories such as gross translation problems; culturally based variations among different speakers of the same language; and subtle distinctions from language to language (Charles, 2006).
A close look at the data indicates that gross translation errors, though frequent, could be less likely to cause serious conflict between parties than some other language difficulties (Reevas, 2014). Indeed, the nonsensical and irrational nature of many gross translation errors usually raises warning flags that are extremely hard to miss. Thus, the parties can then backtrack and rethink the communication area, which prompted the error. Unfortunately, even if it is easy to detect these errors, both sides of the communication waste much time on it. Additionally, for some people, such errors imply a form of personal disrespect for the party into whose language translators translate the message. Evidently, when the parties do not share a control of translations, it could weaken the subtle shadings that are often important to business negotiations. Indeed, misunderstandings could arise because of dialectical differences and changes of words meaning within the same language (Charles, 2006).
It is important to note that attitudes toward dialects and accents also create barriers in international business communication. Clearly, the view that a particular accent suggests familiarity or loyalty to a region or nation is widespread in many languages. Thus, the use of Parisian French in Quebec, sub-continental Indian English in the U.S. or Mexican Spanish in Spain are all noticeable and could suggest a lack of language understanding, even if the user is fluent.
Finally, it is possible to reinforce class distinctions and national prejudices through sociolinguistics, or the social patterning of language. For instance, due to racism and regional prejudice, certain accents in the U.S. associated with rural regions, urban areas, or minorities could reinforce negative stereotypes in areas like business ability, education level, or intelligence. In a like manner, some cultures use sociolinguistics in order to differentiate one economic class from another. Therefore, in England, people associate distinct accents with the aristocracy and the lower or middle classes. Obviously, foreign companies do not know these distinctions, which is the other side of this problem (Reevas, 2014).
The other cross-cultural communication problem in business has its reason in various environmental factors, which can have a big influence on the character and development of cultures. Obviously, topography, climate, population density and size, and the relative availability of resources all contribute to the history and modern conditions of individual nations or regions. Topography and climate affect settlement, notions of transportation and logistics, and territorial organization. Population density and size, and the availability of natural resources influence nation’s view toward domestic markets or export as well. It means that it could be hard to find some common points of view on the organization of business during the communication.
The other culturally determined aspect of global business communication issues is social organization in various nations. It is important to understand for a participants of business process that the view held in someone’s own culture such issues as kinship ties and nepotism, educational values, social mobility and class structure, job status and economic stratification, political affiliation, religious ties, gender differences, attitudes toward work, racism and other prejudices, and recreational or work institutions is not universal. Obviously, all of these areas have far-reaching significant implications for business communication practice. For example, choosing employees based on résumés is usually the primary means of selection in the U.S., Canada, and much of the Europe, or in all nations with comparatively weak social concepts of familial relationships and kinship ties. Undoubtedly, in these cultures, nepotism seems to be negative, and business owners will try to protect less qualified workers through some familial intervention. On the other hand, it could be strange for members of many Arabic, Latin American, central African, or southern European cultures to hire a stranger, but not the relatives. Evidently, for people in these cultures, nepotism ensures a predictable level of trust and accountability and fulfills personal obligations. The fact that a stranger appears to be in some aspect better qualified based on superior résumés, or a relatively brief interview could not necessarily affect that belief. The nature of praise and employee personal motivation can also be socially determined, because different cultures have a wide array of employee reward systems, which reflect the social histories and main values of those cultures. Undoubtedly, such peculiarities are essential in business communication and hiring staff. Thus, the basis of the work of human relations manager is in understanding of the main issues of global communication, and the ability to work with them.
Taking everything into account, it is possible to conclude that global communication faces a huge amount of issues, which could probably influence the future of the humanity. Undoubtedly, communication is the basis of our life, and it is essential to think over the principles, which people use in their communication practices. The current research shows that a small amount of the entire global community realizes the significance and difficulties of the present situation. Needless to say that possible solution will need time for their development and implementation. Thus, it is crucial to start necessary activities now, without any delay. The cultural future of the planet depends on the actions of every individual, from simple Internet user to the President of the nation. Therefore, the global community must support the work of the professional researchers such as philosophers, sociologists, and cultural analytics, who work in this sphere. The result of their activities could give a huge amount of possibilities in the sphere of international relations, conflict resolving, media politics, and many others. Moreover, it is also important for them to develop a new hierarchy based on the non-capitalistic principles. In this hierarchy, an equal and thoughtful global communication could take the primary place, or the fastening role. Undoubtedly, the combination of globalization influences and hierarchy interests could also be a part of international discussion. In any case, the main aim of changes in global communication is to facilitate the concept of fair global cultural development.
Charles, M. (2006). Language Matters in Global Communication. Helsinki School of Economics, Finland. http://pantheerk.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/62914436/Language%20Matters%20CLEAN.pdf
The current article states that communication potential is driving dramatic changes in organizations and their environments. It is essential to note that technology alone could not have achieved globalization. The author argues that the choice of languages used, particularly in intra corporate communication, is a delicate and complex issue requiring more management attention than usually. It is important to say that from a global perspective, the position of English as the universal lingua franca – shared language- of today is beyond dispute.
Edward W. Finn III (2012). Global Leadership in a Changing World. Indiana University Purdue University of Indianapolis. School of Engineering and Technology. Department of Technology, Leadership and Communication
This article reviews the leading change in a global context. The author believes that with the help of the analysis of contextual and cultural factors that exist in global leadership will help understand better differences and similarities between domestic and global change. According to the article, understanding global leadership in a changing world is important. According to Global Leadership in a Changing World, “communication should be continuous through every stage of the change process, from visioning, to creating events, to re-energizing followers through short – term wins.”
Francoise, P. (2012). Global Media Events: Communications Strategies, Social Network
Patterns and Propaganda Models. Media and Communication Institute & Political Studies Institute, University Grenoble, Grenoble, France
This article reviews global media events that include propaganda models, social network patterns and communications strategies. The article states that the Beijing Olympic Games have reinforced the image of China as a global superpower in economics, politics and sport. As well, Olympic Games have strengthened the representation of China on the international stage. Moreover, the article states that China was attempting to rewrite its history to promote a more positive international image that was part and parcel of the propaganda campaigns of the Chinese state. The author also believes that The Olympic Games were the core of a broader strategy of communication based on the perceived role of soft power to improve China’s international image. According to Global Media Events: Communications Strategies, Social Network Patterns and Propaganda Models – A Complex and Challenging Reconciliation, “the fields of modern information and communication demonstrate all too clearly the difficulty of reconciling propaganda with social networking.”
Hamid, M. (2014). Global Communication as Cultural Ecology. China Media ResearchAmerican University, USA
This article reviews global communication as a cultural ecology. The author believes that communication is a cornerstone of cultural environment has been central to social and political thought in both Eastern and Western traditions. It is essential to note that this article highlights the concept of ecology as a new analytical framework for the study of culture and communication and outlines a theoretical model of global communication as cultural ecology. Moreover, the article “Global Communication as Cultural Ecology” reviews Eastern and Western perspectives on ecology and identifies six interrelated ecological terrains: (1) the ecology of goods and commodities; (2) the ecology of services; (3) the ecology of warfare; (4) the ecology of information; (5) the ecology of habitat; and (6) the ecology of ethics and morality. According to Global Communication as Cultural Ecology, “It now seems more imperative than ever to discuss global tensions, not only in terms of explicitly economic, geopolitical, and military structures, but also equally in the context of cultural communication and information struggles.”
Karen L. Becker-Olsen, Charles R. Taylor, Ronald Paul Hill, and Goksel Yalcinkaya (2011). A Cross-Cultural Examination of Corporate Social Responsibility Marketing Communications in Mexico and the United States: Strategies for Global Brands. Journal of International Marketing. American Marketing Association pp. 30–44
This article examines the impact of marketing-oriented corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications on perceptions of the firm and its brands among consumers in two diverse cultures, economies, and political landscapes. The authors’ vision bases on global brand positioning theory, which states that consumer perceptions are enhanced if the brand is viewed as global. In this article the authors give implications for marketing theory and practice as well as future research directions. According to A Cross-Cultural Examination of Corporate Social Responsibility Marketing Communications in Mexico and the United States: Strategies for Global Brands, their research “examines the impact of CSR communications on consumers in two diverse cultures, economies, and political landscapes.”
Pranee, C. (2009). Communication in Global Cultural Teams and International Communication Challenge. Graduate School of Business Administration National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok
This article evaluates communication in global cultural teams, and organizational culture, describing the intercultural communication challenge. Moreover, article studies the intercultural communication and language. As well, the authors discuss the international communication challenges. It is essential to say that intercultural communication presents business people with challenges. Authors believe that cross-cultural communication is a necessity. According to Communication In Global Cultural Teams And International Communication Challenge, “Colleagues and customers from diverse cultures come to the table each with a unique personality, background, language, frame of reference, and experience.” According to the article, innovations, growth in the world’s population and shifts in international contracts all require effective cross-cultural communication skills.
Reeves, L (2014). Top Ten Communication Problems in the Workplace. Demand Media. http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/top-ten-communication-problems-workplace-1527.html
This article reviews the importance of a good communication practices. According to the author, they are at the heart of every successful business. If there is not enough successful internal communications, then work processes slow down. Author states that effective communication begins with understanding the audience. It is essential to say that one of the major communication problems at work is that there is usually not enough information or there is too much information.