Philosophical interpretation of fallacies
The current paper aims to discuss different fallacies in accordance with the philosophical interpretation of this term. It is necessary to mention that fallacy is usually understood as the error in inductive or deductive argument. This error is mostly based on the incorrect usage of logical judgments. Some researchers state that such mistakes could be categorized to represent the imperfection of human’s mind performance. Evidently, there are two basic types of fallacies, which are informal and formal fallacies. A formal fallacy is based on a mistake in the logical structure of the argument while the informal fallacy is connected with the wrong premises. Informal fallacies could be very interesting due to the importance of context in the argument. For instance, one of the most famous fallacies tells about a smoker, who ignores the studies of scientists because his smoking relative had a long life. In such case, the general rule is replaced by the subjective experience. Obviously, this type of thinking error is common for many people. We prefer to ignore the findings of the scientists or the advice of parents because we are confident that personal experience gives more useful information.
Fallacies based on the appeal to authority
There also exists the fallacy based on the appeal to authority. People refer to the great writers, philosophers, or scientists in order to prove some argument. For instance, some famous professor could support the ideology of fascism. In such case, it will be a mistake to use his authority to demonstrate that fascism is good. Nevertheless, it is common for people to make some decisions on the basis of authority’s opinion. Such choice could have negative consequences.
Appeal to ignorance
Finally, appeal to ignorance is an extremely interesting example of our thinking misjudgments. Thus, an individual could state that he or she believes in God because there is no refutation of God’s existence. Obviously, such argument is wrong because there should be the proof of existence rather than the arguments for non-existence. It becomes clear that fallacies are common for everyday life. We need to be careful in order to avoid the negative outcomes of thinking mistakes.
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